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12 Factor Apps

Web application design and architecture has undergone drastic changes in the past decade. With the ubiquity of an 'app for every type of service', how apps are built has evolved to meet modern requirements. There is an excellent guideline on designing apps in such a way that meets these demands and provides robustness for future support and developement. This guideline is called The 12 Factor App.

A 12 Factor App

  • Uses declarative formats for setup automation, to minimize time and cost for new developers joining the project;
  • Has a clean contract with the underlying operating system, offering maximum portability between execution environments;
  • Is suitable for deployment on modern cloud platforms, obviating the need for servers and systems administration;
  • Minimizes divergence between development and production, enabling continuous deployment for maximum agility;
  • scales without significant changes to tooling, architecture, or development practices.

We recommend reading through the guidelines layed out at You may find some of the 'factors' are fairly common sense while others will (hopefully) become an aha! moment

Progressive Web Apps

A Progressive Web App (PWA) is a web app that uses modern web capabilities to deliver an app-like experience to users.

Progressive Web Apps are fast, work in poor network conditions, include good practices for SEO as well as accessibility. It should be noted that Progressive Web Apps refer to the Front End of any Web Application.


Progressive Web Apps utilize modern techniques to optimize, minify, bundle, and fetch assets. This makes the front end of the application load much faster.

Poor Network Conditions

PWAs utilize service workers to ensure that the application has some offline and or poor network activity capability

Best Practices

PWAs come out of the box with the correct markup (html) annotated with the correct properties so that they are accesible by different devices (such as screen readers) and are indexed correctly by search engines.

Best Practices also includes app's being responsive to different screen sizes

All Volkswagons are Cars. Not All Cars Are Volkswagons

By this we mean that not all apps should or can be a PWA. It depends on your app requirements, target audience etc.

How Do I Tell If My App Is A PWA?

The Google Chrome browser released a great tool as apart of their Developer Tools called Lighthouse Audit.

Here is a great guide on how to perform a Lighthouse Audit.